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Bitter Gourd

Crop Ispahani "Hybrid Bitter Gourd"
 

A. Preparation for Seed Sowing
B. Mainland Preparation
C. Fertilizer Management
D. Pest & Diseases Management
E. Harvesting


A. Preparation for Seed Sowing

Hybrid varieties:
Jalali, Tripty, Chitra, Mini, Moni, Baby, Ulka
 
Soil & climate type:
  • Bitter gourd can be cultivated in all types of soil. But fertile loam, sandy loam and clay loam soil is better for Bitter gourd cultivation.
  • The soil must be free from flooding and land should be under sunshine all day long.
  • Hot and humid weather leads to good growth.
  • Pollen may be disrupted due to excessive rainfall.
 
Seed rate:
  • Direct Sowing : 0.8 – 1.0 kg/acre
  • Seedling transplanting : 0.5 kg/acre
 
Seed treatment:
  • Seed treatment with Bio-derma powder works against seed-borne diseases.
  • In 1 kg seed 30 gm Bio-derma powder will be needed.
 
Time of sowing:
Year round crop but best for-
  • August-September for the rabi (winter) season and
  • February to March for the kharif (summer) season.
 
Polybag preparation:
  • Rotten cow dung and compost 25-30 kg, TSP 100 gm MOP 100 gm should be mixed with 10 cft (3ʹx 9ʹx 4.5ʺ) soil properly and 250 gm Bio-derma solid would be needed to control “Damping off” of seedling.
  • Above mixed soil have to be filled up in   4ʺ x 3ʺ polybag.
 
B. Mainland Preparation

Seedling Raising:
  • Only one sprouted Seed sown in the soil of polybag –
    • Depth : 2.0 -3.0 cm
  • Shade Preparation-
A shade should be prepared polybag for shelter of seedling from direct sunlight and rainfall.
  • Sackcloth to be used for direct sunlight
  • Polythene to be used only for heavy rainfall




Land Preparation:
  • The land should be ploughed 4-6 times properly followed by harrowing for breaking clods and properly leveled.
  • One month before seedling transplanting of the vegetable, farm yard manure (FYM) should be applied and completely mixed with soil.
  • 2 meter bed should be made a distance of 40 cm wide and 15 cm depth drainage channels with the help of spade and watered properly. The seedling should be planted on two lines in a bed at the evening.
  • A bio fungicide marketed by Ispahani Agro Limited “Bio-darma” should be use through mixing with rotten cow dung in the land for soil sanctifying.
  • Before 7 days of transplanting of seedling Bio-darma solid would be mixed with soil fairly and 8-10 kg Bio-darma solid applied in 1 bigha (33 decimal) land.
 
Seed Sowing or Seedling Transplanting:
Bitter gourd cultivate in two way-
  • Seedling Transplanting and
  • Seed direct sowing
i. Seedling Transplanting:
  • By making 2 meter wide bed, the row to row distance will be 1.5 m and seedling to seedling distance will be 1.5 m.
  •  The Seedlings are transplanted when 15 to 20 days age or seedling of 3-4 leaves.
  • Seedling should be transplanted 25 cm inner from both side of a bed.
 
ii. Seed sowing:
  • The seeds are soaked in water over night before sowing for better germination.
  • The seed is sown by dibbling method at a spacing of 150 x 150 cm.
  • Seed should be sown 25 cm inner from both side of 2 meter wide bed.
  • Generally three to four wet seeds or 2 sprouted seeds are sown in a pit at 2.5 to 3.0 cm depth.
  • All seedlings will be removed rest only one healthy seedling from a pit after 3-4 true leaves.

C. Fertilizer Management

Manuring & Fertilization
  • The fertilizer doses to be applied depend on variety, fertility of soil, climate and season of planting.
  • The fertilizer is applied in a ring at 6-7 cm from the base of the stem. It is better to complete all the fertilizer applications just before the fruit set.
                     Fertilizer should be applied kg per acre as follows.
Fertilizer Name Fertilizer dose (Kg/acre.) During Land Preparation 1st Top dressing 2nd Top dressing 3rd Top dressing
DAT/ DAS DAT/DAS DAT/DAS
       
DAT/S : Days After Transplanting/Sowing 7-10/20-25 20-25/35-40 35-40/50-55
Cow dung 7000 7000 - - -
Organic fertilizer 100 100 - - -
Urea 70 - 20 25 25
TSP 70 70 - - -
MOP 60 - 20 20 20
Gypsum 40 40 - - -
Zn Sulfate 4 4 - - -
Borax 4 4 - - -
 
D. Pest & Diseases Management  

Pest Management:
Fruit fly:
  • About 50-70 percent fruit become damaged from the attack of fruit fly which is not possible to manage fully by the use of insecticides.
  •  At first eggs are laying into the fruit and then larvae damage inside the fruits.
Control:
  • For control Cucurbit Fruit fly "Q-phero" marketed by Ispahani Agro Limited should be set in the field within 1-2 week after sowing seeds or transplanting.
  • Insects take preparation to attack before flowering, so preventive measure should be taken before flowering stage.
Dosage:
  • Pheromon trap would be set on land with a distance of 10-12 meter in a square. For every 3 decimal of land 1 trap would be used.
  •  A lure remains effective till to months.
 
Sucking insect- thrips:
  • Sucking pest affect the growth of trees by eating the juice of the leaves and helps virus to attack in the plant.
 
Control:"Ecomec" marketed by Ispahani Agro Limited will be mixed with 1ml/liter water.
 
Pumpkin And Epilachna beetle:
  • In the seedling stage Pumpkin & Epilachna beetle eat the middle part of leaf’s vain.
 
Control:
  • "Ecomec" marketed by Ispahani Agro Limited will be mixed with 1ml/liter water.


Diseases Management:
Powdery Mildew :
Symptom : 
  • First appear as round white spots on the under-surface of the older leaves.
  • The spots enlarge, increase in number, coalesce, appear on the upper surface of the leaves and eventually cover both surfaces.
  • The fungus also attacks the stems.
 
Downy mildew :
Symptom :
  • The fungus attacks only the leaves and appear as yellow to reddish- brown spots on the under surface of the leaves.
  • The purplish spores appear on the lower surface. It is prevalent in areas of high humidity, especially when summer rains occur regularly.
Powdery and downy mildew Control
  • "Bio-darma powder" marketed by Ispahani Agro Limited would be mixed with water fairly 3-4 gram per liter and sprayed immediately the affected area and on the plant.
Fusarium Wilt :
  • Initially the plants show temporary wilting symptoms, which becomes permanent and progressive, affecting more vines.
  • The leaves of the affected plants show yellowing, loose turgidity and show drooping
  Control:
  • "Bio-darma powder" marketed by Ispahani Agro Limited would be mixed with water fairly 3-4 gram per liter and sprayed immediately at bottom in the affected area and on the plant.
 
E. Harvesting

Harvesting:
  • After 50-55 days of transplanting Ispahani hybrid bitter gourd can be harvested.
Yield:
  • 10-12 ton per acre.

 

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Ispahani Building (7th Floor) 14-15, Motijheel C/A, Dhaka-1000

Telephone: 0088 02 9553193, PABX: 02 9555192-5, FAX: 02 9565319

Email: info@ispahaniagro.com, Website: www.ispahaniagro.com